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Pathologies

Breast Cancer

Is the cancer most common in women. Metastatic, or “advanced,” breast cancer is cancer that started in the breast tissue but that has spread to other parts of the body. The most common sites where breast cancer can spread are the bones, lungs, liver, and brain. Disease that has spread to other parts of the body is still considered breast cancer because the type of cancer cell remains the same. Although metastatic breast cancer cannot be cured, there are options available to treat the disease.

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in Spanish women, accounting for 29% of all cancers. In Spain in 2015, 27,747 breast cancers were diagnosed. It is estimated that 1 in 8 Spanish women will have breast cancer at some point in their life. Although breast cancer mortality has declined in recent years thanks to screening programs and improved treatments, breast cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death in Spain in women. In 2012, 6075 women died of breast cancer in Spain.

Soft Tissue Sarcoma

Is a type of cancer that starts in the supporting tissues of the body, including the fat, muscle, nerves, blood vessels, and tissues around the joints. More than 50 different types of STS have been identified. Each of these types is named after the kind of tissue cell in which the tumor forms. Some of the most common are gastrointestinal stromal tumors (which form in the gastrointestinal tract, usually in the stomach or small intestine), liposarcoma (which forms in the fat cells), and leiomyosarcoma (which forms in the smooth muscles).

Soft tissues sarcomas are rare tumors. They constitute approximately 1% of all malignant tumors, and are responsible for 2% of cancer mortality. Its estimated incidence in the European Union is about 5 new cases per year per 100,000 inhabitants. Soft tissue sarcomas are slightly more common in men than in women, and can be seen at all ages, including in children and adolescents. However, the highest age in adults is between 40 and 60 years.

Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma

Is a type of cancer originating from the follicular cells of the thyroid gland that is commonly treated with radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy. RAI works by concentrating in thyroid cells and destroying the thyroid tissue and any other thyroid cells (including cancer cells) that take up iodine. Sometimes patients may no longer be able to receive RAI; this could happen if tumors are not taking up RAI, if tumors take up RAI but the cancer is getting worse or if patients have received a lifetime total RAI dose of >600 mCi.

Thyroid cancer is a rare tumor, constituting less than 1% of malignant neoplasms, appears between 2 and 20 cases per 100,000 inhabitants per year. It’s more common in women; in Spain 5 cases / 100,000 in women and 1.9 / 1000.00 in men. It is the most frequent endocrine neoplasia (90% of all endocrine neoplasms), and the leading cause of death in all endocrine tumors.

Renal Cell Carcinoma

Is a kidney cancer that originates in the lining of the proximal convoluted tubule, a part of the very small tubes in the kidney that transport primary urine. It is the most common type of kidney cancer in adults, responsible for approximately 90–95% of cases. Early or locally advanced kidney cancer is usually treated with surgery and radiotherapy. If the cancer has spread outside the kidney to other parts of the body, surgery will usually be combined with other treatments as targeted therapy.

Renal cell carcinoma accounts for 90% of renal malignancies. Renal cell cancer, which is twice as frequent in men as in women, accounts for 2-3% of all malignancies in the adult population worldwide. Most cases are diagnosed between the 4th and the 6th decade of life (from 50 years of age), but can occur at any age. Approximately half of new cases diagnosed in adults are localized, or limited to the kidney itself. Renal carcinoma affects approximately 9 people per year per 100,000 inhabitants in Spain.

Hepatocellular carcinoma

Liver cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths globally with 782,000 estimated new cases worldwide in 2012 and a greater incidence in less developed regions. In Spain, liver cancer incidence is 5522 new cases / year, associated with a high mortality (4536 deaths / year).

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents 90% of all cases of primary liver cancer and mainly develops in cirrhotic livers related to chronic hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus infection. HCC results from the accumulation of somatic genomic alterations and driver cancer genes and its development is a complex multistep process that can originate from various cell types, including mature hepatocytes and stem or progenitor cells. In the context of cirrhosis, HCC starts with pre-cancerous cirrhotic nodules that can transform into malignant early-stage HCC and ultimately progress to more advanced HCC stages.

Glioma

Is a general term used to describe a tumor that grows out of the brain’s supportive cells called glial cells. Gliomas are the most common type of primary malignant brain tumor. Gliomas are classified into astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas: astrocytomas (including glioblastoma) are the most common type of glioma found in adults, these tumors originate from astrocytes – the star-shaped cells that create the supportive tissue of the brain; oligodendrogliomas are tumors that originate as oligodenrocytes, another one of the types of cells found in the supportive tissue of the brain.

Gliomas are the most common primary intracranial tumor, representing 81% of malignant brain tumors. Overall incidence rates for all gliomas range from 4.67 to 5.73 per 100,000 persons. Although relatively rare, they cause significant mortality and morbidity (glioblastoma, the most common glioma histology (45% of all gliomas), has a 5-year relative survival of approximately 5%). In Spain primary central nervous system tumors represent 2% of the total cancer in the adult and up to almost 15% in children younger than 15 years; which indicates that it is, at least in adults, a rare tumor and its incidence is higher in men.

Cutaneous T-cell Lymphoma (CTCL)

Is a rare type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma that affects the skin. It usually developes very slowly and it is caused by white blood cells growing in an uncontrolled manner accumulate preferentially in the skin. When it is at an early stage, treatment is usually directed at the skin. This may include using creams, radiotherapy or a light therapy called PUVA. If the lymphoma is more widespread, treatments that work throughout the body may be used. These may include chemotherapy, interferon injections, retinoid tablets (Bexarotene) and a light therapy for the blood called extracorporeal phototherapy (ECP).

It is estimated that the incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in Spain is 12.3 cases per 100,000 men / year and 10.8 in the case of women. It ranks seventh in incidence by type of cancer in both men and women. In Spain, about 3100 new cases per year are diagnosed in men and 2400 in women. Cutaneous T-cell Lymphoma represents 4% of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Its incidence increases with age, with an average onset between 50 and 60 years of age, and it is twice as common in men as in women.

 

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